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Exercise for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Exercise for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is an extremely common disorder which can affect anyone of any age. In fact, there is a high possibility that at some point in time up to 50 percent of people reading this today will have or have had CTS symptoms and 10 percent or more will have been treated for it! We have addressed many non-surgical treatment strategies for treating CTS recently, but the question of why exercises should be included in this plan remains a mystery for many!

In examining the carpal tunnel anatomy, we have nine tendons that are the “shoe strings” that link the muscles in the forearm on the palm side with the fingers that move through the tunnel along with the notorious median nerve — the culprit that causes the CTS-related numbness and tingling. The tunnel’s bony “roof” consists of eight carpal bones, which link our forearm with our hand and allow us to bend the wrist in several directions. Without these eight little bones, we’d never be able to bend our hand! The tunnel’s “floor” is the transverse carpal ligament, on which the median nerve lies directly above. CTS occurs when the tunnel contents swell and the pressure is applied which pushes the median nerve into the floor, what’s normal when the wrist is twisted, like sleeping with our hand tucked under our chin at night – thus the explanation for a night splint to avoid bending at night.

Now that we have a picture of the tunnel in our heads, CTS exercises will make more sense. CTS occurs when strong, repetitive activities are conducted over a long period of time (e.g., musical instrument practise, assembly line work, carpentry, etc.). The friction inside the tunnel between the tendons (“shoe strings”) causes swelling and this results in tightness.

EXERCISE # 1 is ICING and spreading it over the tunnel using a bag of ice. You’ll feel COLD first, then burning, then aching and eventually numbness. Stop at numbness, as frostbite is the next step of cooling! Some of you may not see “ice massage” as an exercise, but it’s really necessary!

EXERCISE # 2 – Stand by a countertop, put the palm side of your fingers on the counter edge and move until your wrist is bent sideways to the point that you can hold it while holding your elbow straight. Now reach over with your other hand and draw back your thumb as far as possible. Can you feel a “pull” up to the elbows in your mid forearm? Good! Keep that for 3 to 5 seconds, rest for 5 seconds and repeat it 3 times. Use this on both hands, even when the other hand is “natural” so you can feel the difference between the “strong” side of the CTS versus the regular arm. Often, CTS is bilateral so you may not note any difference. Now, set the timer to ring every hour on your smartphone to remind you to do that during the work day.

EXERCISE # 3 is an open sequence of the fist/”bear claw” / hand. First, make a tight fist, then open your hand while holding your fingers bent / flexed and then open your hand and fingers completely. Keep each place for two to three seconds and go through the sequence as much as possible (usually two to three times a day, several times a day) when doing BOTH sides simultaneously.

Why do these exercises help? You break up adhesion’s between the tendons, their sheaths, and the underlying tissues. These exercises often cause you to take ‘mini-breaks’ during a busy day, which may minimise swelling in the carpal tunnel.

We understand that you have a preference for your health care and we deeply appreciate your choosing our service for those needs. If you, a friend or family member need Carpal Tunnel Syndrome treatment, we’d be delighted to support you.

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Exercise Can Improve Osteoarthritis In Knees

Exercise Can Improve Osteoarthritis In Knees

It’s normal to limit movement in the face of musculoskeletal pain. Unfortunately, doing so will weaken the affected area’s muscles and joints which can prolong discomfort and increase the likelihood of potential injury. Knee-arthritis patients often fall into this pit. So, in the presence of knee osteoarthritis, what sort of exercises are best for enhancing knee strength?

First, let’s describe two muscle activity types that can occur during exercise: eccentric and concentrated. In a bench press the muscles in the chest shorten in a coordinated motion as you move the barbell upwards. When you lower the bar downwards, lengthen the pectoral muscles, which is an eccentric motion.

A 2019 study involving 54 seniors with knee osteoarthritis studied which of the two phases develops greater strength for the knee – the concentration / muscle shortening process or the process of muscle lengthening. Participants were divided into three groups: CNC RT (concentric resistance), ECC RT (eccentric resistance), or CON (exercise / wait-list group control group). The two exercise groups provided four months of supervised exercise training using conventional weight machines with correct configurations and guidance that stressed the focused or eccentric phase of the exercise.

Participants completed questionnaires each week to assess knee pain and disability. The researchers also reported the maximum weight that could be lifted by each subject with respect to knee flexion, knee extension and leg push.

The findings showed that the strength increases encountered by both exercise groups as opposed to the control group, with the eccentric resistance group making greater improvements in the exercises of leg pressing and knee flexion, but not for knee extension. Both classes of exercise have reported less pain and handicap than the control group. The authors concluded that both modes of resistance training effectively improved leg strength, pain, and function and suggested that the style preferred by an individual should be focused on personal preference, priorities, tolerance, and availability of equipment.

All exercise groups have indicated less pain and impairment than control. This research is a perfect example of the many advantages that exercise can offer to an elderly population with osteoarthritis in the knees. In addition to offering manual therapies, modalities, orthotics (knee braces and foot orthotics), as well as dietary and nutritional advice for stress reduction and pain control purposes, Osteopaths also recommend exercises for patients with knee pain. You owe it to yourself to look for less intrusive treatment methods first before throwing in the towel and rushing to a complete knee arthroplasty (replacement).

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Back Pain

Exercises You Can Do at Home – For Patients with Back Pain

It is not unusual for patients with low back pain to decrease their activity in an attempt to reduce pain. Unfortunately, their core muscles–the muscles that help stabilise their mid-section – are likely to become deconditioned due to inactivity over time, which can only raise the likelihood of further injury. Therefore, if one’s low back pain status is to be improved effectively, he or she must first develop and maintain good core muscles! Think for ease of implementation in one to three sets of ten reps, and always release the exercise slowly — don’t just drop back from the exercise’s end range.

The abdominal muscles contain four groups: the rectus abdominis (they attach our rib cage to our pelvic region and the fibres run straight up and down), the internal obliques (the fibres run down and out), the external obliques (the fibres run out and out) and the transverse abdominis (the fibres run horizontally and connect themselves to the fascia in the lower back).

If we think of three levels of difficulty with exercise, a simple (or level 1) sit-up can involve a “crunch” or simply raise the head and shoulders off the floor. A more difficult exercise (Level 2) might be to bend the knees and hips at 90 degree angles when performing a sit-up, whereas a more difficult exercise (Level 3) ab would be a double straight leg lift during sit-up. The rectus is stimulated by going straight up and down while the obliques that overlap involve a twist to the trunk. You should use an “abdominal brace,” or keep the muscles of the stomach tightly as though anyone might punch you in the stomach, in any place or activity during the day.

A variety of useful exercises, including (but not limited to) the “bird-dog” (kneeling on “all-fours”) straightening the opposite arm and leg separately (level 1) and then flipping back and forth (level 2) can be used to strengthen the low back extender muscles. Level 3 may be longer holding times, drawing with hand and foot a line, or rising repetitions.

Another low back reinforcer is called the “Superman,” which involves an initial raising of one arm on the stomach (pronounced) and then the opposite leg separately (Level I); then opposite limbs at the same time (Level 2); and eventually raising all arms and legs simultaneously (Level 3). It can be made more comfortable by placing a roll under the pelvis / abdomen.

You may use a side bridge or plank to support the sides of the core, or lateral trunk stabilisers (laying between the elbow and feet on the foot, with the hips up and off the floor). Level 1 might be a six-second hold from the knees, level 2 might be a six-second hold from the feet, and level 3 could be a twelve-second hold from the elbow / forearm and the foot. A change may involve gradual repetitions of lowering the pelvis to and back up to the floor. Only switch it up!

Many more exercises are available, but these will keep you going for a while! Note, remain within the “acceptable limits of pain” that you establish, release slowly any exercise and, most importantly, have fun!

Adapted article:

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COVID-19 Updates from Cram Osteopaths

We are closed 🙁 … But read on.

We want to follow up on our email from last week and start by saying thank you so much for all your feedback and messages of support.

Cram Osteopaths decided to close all of our clinics as of 5pm Tuesday 24th March 2020. We initially were waiting on advice from regulators and government however information was slow and mixed in flowing through to us. We decided closure was the best decision for all of our patients and all of our families.

At 1:00pm 26th March Statutory Instrument* came into force (in other words, it came into UK law) that states:

  • osteopaths and chiropractors specifically are allowed to remain open
  • the public are allowed to leave their home to visit an osteopath or a chiropractor

Although this makes it legal for our practice to remain open, we have decided to remain closed for normal operating times.

However we have decided to offer consultations from our Barrington Drive practice in certain circumstances. If you, a relative or friend are in urgent need of an appointment please contact us on the details below with your contact number and request an appointment. We will contact you to discuss your symptoms and may be able to offer you an appointment.

(Please note that if you are in the ‘high risk’ group as specified by the government, you have a new onset of symptoms of Covid-19 or you have recently been in physical contact with somebody who has Covid-19 or the symptoms of Covid-19, for everybody’s safety we will not be able to see you in person.)

Michael – – 0141 339 0894

Joanna – – 0141 339 0894

We are planning on reopening our doors to all on Friday May 1st. If you have an appointment scheduled between this time, we will be contacting you personally to rearrange your appointment for May.

We hope you remain well in mind and body throughout this time and look forward to seeing again soon. Please keep in touch with us on our Facebook Page (Cram Osteopaths), and keep check on our website for regular updates.

Very Best,

Michael & Joanna

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Osteopathic Treatment Advantages for Seniors

Osteopathic Treatment Advantages for Seniors

Every year, Osteopathic therapy helps millions of seniors regain control of their lives. There are many benefits associated with Osteopathic treatment, including improved flexibility, mobility and work, increased energy, better coordination, and chronic or acute pain relief / removal.

Osteopathic practitioners use a range of approaches including physical therapy, treatment of soft tissue, radical calming techniques, counselling for health and fitness, and counselling for nutrition and diet. Read on to learn how Osteopathic therapy helps seniors make the most of their lives and bodies.

Pain Relief

When you suffer from a disease associated with the spine that causes intense pain or discomfort, Osteopathic care is one of the best and most successful treatment options available. Many spinal injuries are caused by anomalies to the spine and the soft tissue around it.

Osteopathic practitioners are educated in the art of identifying and treating vertebral misalignments; they also know the effect of these subluxations on the central nervous system. In other words, relatively simple adjustments to the Osteopathic can significantly reduce or even eliminate the pain that you suffer.

This is a long-term approach, in the best of all. This contrasts favourably with traditional treatments like pain relievers and anti-inflammatory medications, which merely mask the symptoms.

Better Balance and Coordination

Research conducted by Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) shows that about 33 percent of seniors are suffering a fall each year, and fewer than 50 percent are actively telling their doctor. An estimated 2.5 million people are treated annually in emergency rooms for fall injuries, and falls account for more than 95 percent of hip fractures in seniors.

As we get older, it’s normal to encounter issues with balance and coordination; this is mostly due to injury or cervical spine degeneration. Structures on the back joints of the cervical spine called mechanoreceptors provide feedback for the brain; they are essential for balance and coordination.

Such structures include details about your head’s location in relation to your body. As we age, deficiencies cause these mechanisms to become weakened, resulting in a lack of body knowledge (proprioception); the effect is that you rely on your eyes to discern where your limbs are located.

To counter the lack of body awareness, your feet are more apart than normal, which causes you to take irregular length steps. At some point, your condition can worsen to the point where you begin to fall. Worse still, without help you won’t be able to get up from the table.

Osteopathic care can stimulate your cervical spine mechanoreceptors, resulting in improved balance and coordination, and decreased risk of falling.

Increased Range of Motion in the Spine

There’s a reason why top sports professional athletes hire Osteopaths to improve their range of motion: the process works! Even minor adjustments to the Osteopathic can make a huge difference in improving the range of motion in your spine. Imagine your grandchildren being able to bend down and pick up, swing a golf club, or exercise, all without pain. Moreover, the healthier you are, the less likely you are to get chronic medical problems. Also being active helps your overall health and lowers your chances of getting to a nursing home.

A Reduction in Joint Degeneration

Close to 3 million Brits suffer from osteoarthritis (OA), also known as degenerative joint disease, according to the CDC. It is not shocking that OA is even more prevalent among seniors; it affects 33 per cent of people over 65 years of age.

The disease triggers a deterioration of the cartilage that coats the joints. Age and repetitive movement weaken the protective tissue; this leads to increased friction as the joint bones rub together. It usually affects the elbows, knees, breasts, spine and.

If you have spinal degeneration, Osteopathic treatment will lower spinal tension and normalise alignment of your spine. Other Osteopathic therapies which may help alleviate symptoms of OA include the following.

Ultrasound therapy: Sound waves may produce a massaging effect which reduces swelling, stiffness and pain.

Trigger point therapy: Gentle pressure is applied to the precise area where pain is felt.

Therapeutic stretches and exercises: The Osteopathic will prescribe physical workouts aimed at enhancing the strength and endurance.

Pain Relief Without Medication

Medication is appropriate in some situations but we have a tendency to over-medicate in the United Kingdom. The typical 75-year-old, at any given time, takes more than 10 medications for a number of illnesses, according to some reports. Overmedication of elders is now suspected to be related to increased falls, heart attacks, and kidney failures.

Another possible problem with overmedication among seniors is its impact on cognition and mental capacity. Over-medicated seniors are not unusual to be misdiagnosed with disorders such as dementia, Alzheimer’s and depression.

You will significantly reduce the dependence on drugs with Osteopathic care, because the treatment is drug-free. It is very important if you are taking other prescription drugs because you may be more vulnerable to adverse side effects with additional medication.


If your loved one is a senior citizen, persuade him or her to see an Osteopathic as soon as possible; after all, they will enjoy the golden years. The senior will benefit from a substantial reduction or even a total removal of pain with the committed care of an Osteopathic specialist. The consequence is a substantial increase in quality of life. Osteopathic care is best of all found to be a healthy treatment for the elderly.


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Osteopathic Modification

Osteopathic Modifications Benefit the Immune System

Can We Be “Too Clean?” – Not Currently. Given the current situation with COVID-19 there is no debate that washing your hands regularly for over 20 seconds is highly important in limiting the spread of the virus and a healthy immune system helps you fight it.

The definition of cleanliness has been a subject of considerable discussion for many years, because, on one side of the fence, regular cleaning decreases the number of disease-causing bacteria and viruses as we are very aware of currently.

On the other hand, some researchers claim that when exposed to pathogens and allergens frequently, our body’s immune system needs to work harder, which may improve our autoimmune response to the different bugs that we may encounter in our everyday lives.

What’s the facts telling, then?

Researchers found in a new study that children who bit their nails or sucked their thumb-habits frequently discouraged by parents-were half as likely to have allergies at age 32. The children’s immune systems are believed to be improved due to repeated exposure to the bacteria that were either under the nails or on the hands.

This new discovery— the hygiene theory coined — may explain why allergies are more prevalent now than they were during the Victorian era — a period when hygiene was much worse.

Over the past twenty years, there has been a gradual rise in allergies, but no-one can completely understand why. In the United Kingdom, for example, at some stage in life one in four people suffer from an allergy, with a rise in the number each year. While some evidence supports hypotheses of germ exposure, experts emphasise that many important factors like diet, exercise, environmental conditions, antibiotic usage, and a family history of allergies may also play a greater role in the development of allergies.

It is of course very necessary to maintain great standards of personal and home hygiene! Avoiding and preventing infection from spreading to others by covering your mouth when you are sneezing (especially when you are sick) or washing your hands after using the toilet are solid practises!

The evidence available seems to support the following:

  • Children born at a farm develop less allergies (possibly due to proximity to farm animals).
  • Chemicals used in household cleaning items are NOT associated with any spike in allergies.
  • The bathing or showering duration is NOT associated with an increased risk of allergies.
  • Antibiotic use IS related to allergy (by disrupting the balance of good and bad bacteria in the body).*
  • Vaccines are NOT directly correlated with the growth of allergies.

Diet changes have been linked to the rise in allergy, particularly in infancy. The introduction of “high allergy” foods such as nuts, seeds, milk, soy, wheat / gluten, and egg AFTER at least six months of breastfeeding exclusively (during the weaning process) may reduce the number of children who develop allergies in later childhood.

Osteopathic modifications benefit the immune system which we know a strong immune system is essential in fighting viruses.**



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Factors That Can Delay the Rehabilitation of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Factors That Can Delay the Rehabilitation of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

As for most musculoskeletal disorders, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) treatment recommendations initially prescribe non-surgical or conservative management, for surgery being avoided only in emergency cases, or after non-surgical options. So, is there any way of knowing who would better respond to non-surgical approaches?

To reply to this, researchers performed a two-stage study that included an initial assessment followed by non-surgical treatment, and a one-year re-evaluation after completion of non-surgical treatment. The study’s primary objective was to determine factors that lead to the long-term effects of non-surgical CTS care and to identify risk factors for failure.

The study included 49 people diagnosed with CTS, of which 37 (76 percent) reported an occupational cause. Since some patients had CTS in both hands (bilateral CTS) this included a total of 78 hands / wrists in the study. Treatment included a total of 10 whirlpool massage sessions done at home to the wrist and neck, ultrasound, and median nerve glide exercises. The subjects were divided into three classes of age: < 50, 51-59, or around 60 years.

Although, in both stages of the study, most patients reported substantial change, some did not. Patients with more serious cases, as demonstrated by weak NCV test results, were less likely to respond to treatment, which highlights the importance of pursuing CTS treatment as soon as symptoms arise. In addition, participants who tended to overuse their hands at work, or who did not change their work procedures or workstation to minimise the forces applied to the hands and wrist, were less likely to show substantial changes at the point of one year. Interestingly, age was not found to be a major risk factor, which is surprising because previous studies have identified a risk factor being over 50 years old.

Not only are Osteopaths trained in the same non-surgical methods of treatment used in this research, but they may combine these techniques with dietary therapy (to minimise inflammation) and manual therapies to enhance function in the wrist and other locations along the path of the median nerve to obtain the best possible outcomes for their patients.

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Headaches and Spinal Manipulation

Headaches and Spinal Manipulation

Cervicogenic headache (CGH) refers to headaches caused by neck pain, and researchers report that 18 per cent of patients with chronic headache have cervicogenic headache. Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is the most popular type of treatment provided by Osteopaths, and many studies have shown that SMT is extremely successful in patients suffering from neck musculoskeletal disorders, including those with cervicogenic headaches. Nonetheless, no consensus exists on the sufficient number of SMT therapies to obtain optimum benefits for CGH.

A research team conducted a large-scale study involving 256 chronic CGH patients in a 2018 study to assess how many therapies are required to achieve optimal results using CGH SMT. For six weeks, the investigators randomly allocated participants to one of SMT’s four dosage ranges (0, 6, 12, or 18 visits). The SMT method consisted of manual manipulation of the high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) thrust in the cervical and upper thoracic regions. A short, normal spinal palpatory test from occiput to T3 to assess discomfort and controlled motion determined the position of the spinal change. In elderly patients and/or those suffering from acute pain, the manual therapy has been updated to operate at low velocity, low amplitude. To monitor continuity of visit and care of the doctor, patients began to receive a light massage treatment after the number of visits prescribed to a patient had been reached, before the six-week treatment period ended.

Following the end of the study’s recovery process, the participants used a headache log to keep track of their headaches for the coming year. The findings found that over the next twelve months, the patients who received the most SMT therapies had less headaches. More precisely, the researchers determined that over the next year, six additional SMT visits resulted in about twelve fewer days with headaches.

When you are suffering from headaches, consider visiting an Osteopath to decide when cervical dysfunction is a potential cause or contributing factor and whether you are a candidate for manipulative spinal treatment.

Visit one of our many practices in Glasgow & Ayrshire. We look forward to seeing you!

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Osteopath Glasgow & Ayr

Why an Osteopath Recommends Multiple Visits

Patients always ask why I prescribe multiple visits early on in their care plan as an Osteopath. Why? Long term results, that’s why. At Cram Osteopaths based in Glasgow and Ayr, we seek to provide a thorough solution for our patients. As a minimum 6-10 visits are required for low back (mechanical) pain, for example, to be resolved.

However, according to a retrospective, open label, randomised controlled trial conducted in The Spine Journal, twelve sessions of spinal manipulation were found to provide the best treatment outcomes in the osteopathic management of chronic low back pain with spinal manipulation.

“Our fastidious randomised control trial shows that 12 sessions of spinal manipulation over 6 weeks for uncomplicated chronic low back pain is a reasonable care option,” said lead author Mitchell Haas, DC, Center for Outcomes Studies, University of Western States, Portland, OR.

The research was designed to evaluate the optimal number of spinal manipulation sessions required to provide the most effective treatment with the best outcomes, variables that are of concern to patients, providers, payers and policy makers, Dr. Haas said.

So Why Should an Osteopath Suggest Continual Treatments?

Well, the fact is that the “medicine” for an Osteopath is primarily given by the musculoskeletal system adjustments (MSK)-that is, the muscles, joints, related tissues and their interaction with other body systems. For a new patient, especially one who has never seen an Osteopath, it may take a number of those changes to achieve the required degree of correction of their misalignment(s).  The Osteopath discusses the root cause of the patient’s distress, as opposed to treating just the pain symptoms that caused them to seek treatment. As others have learned before going to an Osteopath, medication can hide the problem for a while but it doesn’t cure it. This is where the Osteopath excels in the treatment of biomechanical instability.

Ongoing treatment may be necessary for degenerative conditions as we age. This is to prevent and slow down the spinal and other joints becoming permanently compromised.

To keep your body health in good condition, maintenance treatment can stop problem areas becoming painful, to allow your body to do the things it wants to do like sports, gardening or lifting up grandchildren!

The Effect of An Osteopathic Treatment Course Is Cumulative

Pain is not the real problem but a warning sign that something is wrong and needs to be addressed. People are used to taking a pill when they try to get immediate relief for this or that ache. However, if the pain begins to return it will become obvious that those drugs are not the answer. It is there that Osteopathy will help.

When you wonder why an Osteopath suggests multiple visits, remember how many total pills you took (and for how long) before you decided to try an alternative treatment for health? You can be pretty well confident that when everything is said and done, the amount of Osteopath visits and the length of treatment needed to correct the problem will be far less.

Additionally, I also recommend that patients come in for check-ups from time to time, the goal being to diagnose and treat complications emerging before they become painful again. The Osteopath only wants to give their patients spines for example, which cannot be replaced, as much care and attention as they give their teeth, which can be.

Could you benefit from a check-up consultation? Book online at Glasgow or Ayrshire practice

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Osteopathy and the Common Cold

Osteopathy and the Common Cold

Osteopathic techniques are used for many symptoms, most of which support conditions related to the musculoskeletal system — that is, spine, back, upper and lower limb conditions — by research-based evidence. However, spinal manipulation can have other beneficial effects when applied to certain parts of the spine which are also confirmed by studies. One such additional benefit involves the immune system. So, will Osteopathic adaptations support conditions like the common cold? Let’s just have a look!

To this question the quick answer is, “Probably!” Studies report that controlling our immune responses (the capacity of our body to resist pathogens, allergens and the like) relies on an intimate relationship between our nervous system and our immune system.

The steps that occur to accomplish this include complex interactions between different chemicals including neurotransmitters (chemicals in the nervous system), cytokines (these aid “recruit” immune cells to infection sites), and others. Researchers observed the development of a main chemical immune system (a cytokine called “interleukin-2”) while examining cell cultures taken from healthy people who received a single Osteopathic adjustment to the upper thoracic spine. This study used 74 stable age-matched participants assigned to one of three groups: upper thoracic (group 1), sham (fake) manipulation (group 2) or only venapuncture (group 3 – control group).

Each participant’s blood samples were taken before (the initial base line), 20 minutes after treatment, and 2 hours after treatment. Blood samples from the subjects representing the three classes were put in separate cultures infected with an infection, and examined for differences in the development of antibodies (immune response).

They found that protective antibodies (IgG and IgM) were only developed by the manipulative group. This therefore supports the hypothesis that upper thoracic spinal stimulation will activate the immune system through the nervous system and lead to an increase in antibody development that helps us to better fight off those nasty bugs such as rhinoviruses that lead to common cold. Hopefully ongoing research will tell us more about how all of this works, but the current science is looking very good! Note that there are at least 99 recognised different types of rhinoviruses, each individually special, making it nearly impossible to “heal” the common cold because one or more rhinoviruses that strike us at one time.

Here are some other ways recorded for strengthening the immune system:

Probiotics: supplementing with “good” bacteria that live Naturally in our GI tract (intestines) with two types of bacteria: 1. Lactobacillus acidophilus et 2. Bifidum bifidum (BB). LA usually resides in the lower GI (large intestine) and upper GI (small intestine) and BB. Studies show that these friendly bacteria enhance the capacity of the immune cells that cover the GI Tract to protect the body against pathogens, (“bad”) bacteria, and allergens.

Exercise: Moderate exercise increases the activity of the immune system, but intense exercise can have the opposite effect. “Post-exercise immune function dysfunction” is most pronounced when the exercise is constant, extended (> 1.5 h), of moderate to high intensity (55-75 percent VO2 Max), and in particular when done without eating.

Other vitamins and nutrients: Carotenoids, Co-Q10, Echinacea, omega-3 fatty acids, selenium, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc are included in the partial list.

Reduce stress: A lot of evidence exists that stress decreases our immune functions.*

Adapted article credit:


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