Head Tilt and Headaches in Glasgow & Ayrshire

Head Tilt and Headaches in Glasgow & Ayrshire

We’ve always seen people working on laptops and smartphones in airports, planes, coffee shops, on the subway, walking down the street, you name it! So how does this affect one’s neck and does it lead to headaches?

A 2016 study compared females with posture-induced headaches vs. fit, age-matched female control subjects, to see if there was any substantial change in head-tilt and forward-head orientation, during laptop use.

The research team measured angles for maximum head protraction (chin-poking forwards), head-tilt and forward head position at baseline (neutral resting,) whilst using a laptop. Essentially, they assessed how the participant’s stance “slumped” at rest vs. when working on a laptop.

The findings revealed that the “headache” group showed a raised head protraction of 22.3 per cent relative to the group at rest. When comparing the ratio of forward head orientation to overall head protraction during normal sitting, the researchers observed a substantial difference, greater head tilt in the headache group. Similarly, the position of the laptop work / desk setup in the headache group, was worse.

The researchers concluded that the headache group displayed poorer rest posture in all measures as well as more forward head posture during the laptop analysis, than the control group. They suggested that treatment / therapy for patients with headaches and/or neck pain include posture retraining exercises as a significant component for long-term successful outcomes.

This study shows the importance of this and the need to include exercises such as chin-retraction, conscious repositioning of the head, cervical traction (in some cases), deep neck flexor muscle strengthening, scapular stability management, and more.

When you look at a person from the side, imagine that a perpendicular line passing through the ear canal should pass through the shoulder, hip, and ankle. In cases of forward head posture, the line will move forwards of these bony landmarks.

Previous evidence indicates that the head weighs an average of 12 pounds (5.44 kg), and with any inch of forward head placement, the neck and upper back muscles are filled with an additional 10 pounds (4.53 kg) of load to hold the head upright. That means a five-inch forward head position adds 50 pounds (22.67 kg) of weight to the neck and upper back area. It’s no wonder this faulty posture leads to chronic neck and headache complaints!

Spinal joint manipulation is one of the most patient-satisfied, fast-acting treatments for pain in the neck and other forms of headache treatment provided by Osteopaths. But when manipulation is paired with exercise treatment, findings suggest that this paired strategy results in the greatest long-term effects or outcomes!

If you are suffering from neck pain, headaches or any physical issues you may wish to seek treatment for, please book online to see us at

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The Importance of Blocking Blue Light in Glasgow & Ayrshire

The Importance of Blocking Blue Light in Glasgow & Ayrshire

The electromagnetic spectrum extends from gamma rays — which can be deadly — to radio waves that flow in the air around us without any effect. The most significant wavelength for our eyes is between the ultraviolet and infrared sections of the spectrum: visible light. However, research suggests that high-dose blue light can be troublesome, particularly with the use of electronic devices.

Both the sun and incandescent bulbs emit light in a vast spectrum that our eyes have adapted to see. The light originating from our electronic devices may look identical, but it is concentrated in three major peaks of blue, green and red. When using a phone or tablet, this means that more than the normal amount of more energetic blue light is transmitted to the eyes at a short distance and over (often) longer periods of time. Researchers have observed that this can cause the eyes to grow tired and dry, which can lead to discomfort. Exposure to blue light at night will slow down the development of the sleep hormone melatonin, resulting in sleeping problems and negative health effects.

In order to reduce the consequences of excessive blue light exposure, a number of tech companies have created blue light and night time filtration settings that reduce the amount of blue light coming from the devices. Many websites and programmes also offer a dark mode that reduces the amount of white on the screen, which means that less light is emitted by the diodes. Users also report that these features are easier to look at.

Whilst the subject is up for debate, prolonged exposure to blue light may often contribute to an increased risk of macular degeneration, a general cause of vision loss linked with photoreceptor cell damage in the retina. In laboratory studies, researchers have observed that when blue light interacts with the retinal molecule, it can lead to cell damage and even cell death. This result did not appear in other sources of visible light. However, it is important to note that this study was conducted in a laboratory setting and not on the eyes themselves, so although the authors found a mechanism by which the blue light plus the retinal can cause cell damage, they are not sure whether this occurs in the eye itself.

However, given the impact that excessive screen usage can have on eye exhaustion and potential sleep disruption, it is necessary to take eye breaks and use filtering or modes that minimise blue light (or wear glasses that block blue light).

Device related neck pain has also become a huge problem along with postural issues. If you feel you need to seek further advice on any of these topics please contact us at

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knee pain

Details to be considered before Knee Joint Repair in Glasgow & Ayrshire

When it comes to chronic knee pain, there are several rehabilitation options available to relieve pain and improve function, including Osteopathic therapy. However, there are cases where a patient can opt for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In certain cases, they may be able to continue their day-to-day routines, but a section of patients may not reach a successful result. How do we learn from these patients who can advise us when not to recommend surgery for knee pain?

In one study , the researchers evaluated TKA patients one year after their treatment to determine their results with respect to the range of motion and function of the knees, as these are critical for performing day-to-day tasks such as the ability to put on shoes and socks, to squat down to pick items up from the floor, to get up and down from sitting, to climb and descend down stairs, etc. The study team observed that patients with impaired range of motion before surgery, as well as those with poor coordination of the knee (tibial-femoral angle) were less likely to have a favourable outcome.

Several experiments have shown how hyperpronation of the ankle can affect the alignment of the knee, bringing extra tension to the joint, as it can affect the operation of the hip. These matters should be discussed prior to the consideration of TKA. That is why it is necessary for clinicians to examine the patient as a whole for a musculoskeletal disorder because the cause or underlying factors for the injury may be beyond the region of the main concern. In certain cases, a combination of manual treatment and precise exercises offered by an Osteopath can return proper mobility to the injured hip or ankle, which can also help the knee.

Manual treatments can also break up adhesions and scar tissue that may hinder the mobility of the knee. When the knee can function as expected, the pressure from regular activity can help to bring nutrients to the remaining cartilaginous tissue, decreasing inflammation and discomfort.

The take-home lesson is that there might be a time when TKA is the only alternative to a patient with knee pain, but if the knee is poorly balanced or the range of motion is reduced, TKA may not be the solution. Luckily, there are problems that may be treated by osteopathy therapy, which can prolong or even minimise the need for a surgical operation.

If you are having knee or any joint issues please book in to see us at one of our clinics which can be found at this link

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Neck Pain

Workstation Neck Pain in Glasgow & Ayrshire

Neck pain is commonly associated with sitting in front of a screen for lengthy periods of time. So, is there a “correct” or “ideal” sort of desk to use while sitting on a desktop all day?

The sit-stand desk has gained considerable prominence in recent years, particularly with an 83% rise in sedentary employment since the 1950s.

In a report in 2018, researchers contrasted the impact of sitting and standing at a desk for 90 minutes in 20 healthy and active adults. Researchers tracked typing work efficiency and discomfort, vascular / blood flow, and structural improvements in the spine, hands, and arms, and found that standing desk use resulted in greater involvement of the shoulder girdle stabilising muscles (good thing), less pressure on the lower trapezius muscles, less upper body pain, and improved typing efficiency. The authors of the report suggest additional research to establish how standing impacts more complex computer programming functions, over prolonged work periods in symptomatic workers.

A treadmill desk is another form of desk available. In one study, researchers observed that using a treadmill desk resulted in less upper limb discomfort relative to sitting desk use, as well as improved muscle performance from lower back paraspinal muscles, wrist extender muscles, external abdominal obliques, lower trapezius and anterior deltoids.

What about the trend of making a little bicycle unit under the desk? In a 2019 study, researchers observed that participants performed better typing tasks while cycling, particularly at higher intensity.

Osteopaths are often asked about sitting / stand desk solutions, with or without lower limb exercise. The standard approach is to change it up, sit or stand as appropriate, and vary the amount of under-the-shelf exercise based on how you feel. Research supports that standing, walking and/or cycling may be a better alternative than a conventional sitting-only, sedentary desk.

If you need assistance with neck pain please book online at one of our clinics here:

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Cycling and Low Back Pain in Glasgow & Ayrshire

Cycling and Low Back Pain in Glasgow & Ayrshire

Cycling and Low Back Pain in Glasgow & Ayrshire

Cycling is known to be a very fun and effective way to exercise. There is some doubt, though, as to how posture when riding, can affect the lower back and whether cycling is effective in healing lower back pain.

Cyclists ride either round-back, flat-back, or curved-back, depending on the degree of pelvic rotation and spinal flexion. It seems that the choice of position when riding a bike is mainly related to saddle height, saddle angle or turn, and the form of handlebar. Some handlebars offer multiple options as to where you can place your hands, e.g. on the grips (most upright), on the bar closer to the stem (medium position), or on the drops — the lowest option offered on the under / racing handlebar type curl.

One would imagine flat-back posture might be better for the lower back, precisely because it prevents the two extremes. However, this position is synonymous with greater wind resistance and is likely to be avoided by more serious riders trying to cycle as efficiently as possible. One pilot study looked at the lumbar spine angle of young adult recreational cyclists as they utilised all three postures in ten-minute intervals with different bike configurations and found that the “curve-in back” position caused by gripping the drops resulted in the greatest increase in spinal flexion over time. In individuals with a low back problem, this increased spinal flexion can lead to increased pain and associated symptoms over time.

Another study looked at how a bike is fitted, the position of the cyclist, and the perception of comfort, fatigue, and pain. Twenty bikers raced for 45 minutes in three out of nine possible places at 50 percent of their total aerobic strength performance. The three positions were defined by two parameters: knee flexion angle (20°, 30°, 40°) and trunk flexion angle (35°, 45°, 55°), in a random order. The results showed that having the trunk upright (not bent forward) and the seat height adjusted so the knee flexion angle was 30° was the most comfortable position for participants. In addition, the researchers found that tilting the seat forward reduced the low back discomfort in people with the condition.

As part of the healing process for low back pain, Osteopaths also urge patients to exercise. Due to its low-impact nature, as well as being really fun, cycling is a perfect choice. However, it’s important to make sure your bike suits in such a way that you can ride easily with a good balance and not worsen your condition.

If you are suffering from low back pain or any condition you may feel the need for treatment, please book online at

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Shoulder pain

Scapular Stabilization for Shoulder Pain in Glasgow and Ayrshire

The shoulder is one of the biggest and most complex joints in the body. It’s actually three joints—the AC or acromioclavicular joint (the collar bone/acromion of the shoulder blade joint), the glenohumeral joint (the ball-and-socket joint), and the scapulothoracic joint (the shoulder blade/rib cage “joint”)—all of which involve the scapula to some degree.

The rotator cuff consists of four muscles, three of which sit on the back of the scapula and rotate the outer arm (external rotation) and one which rotates it inward (internal rotation.) The trapezius muscle is made up of three parts: the upper part pulls the shoulder blade up and in, the middle portion pulls the shoulder inward, and the lower section of the muscle pulls the scapula down and inward. The chest muscles rotate the arms inward. There is also a “bursa” or a fluid-filled sac that cushions, lubricates, and protects the rotator cuff tendon attachments. The “labrum” attaches to the rim of the “socket” or cup, to give it more depth and stability for the ball to sit in.

Since this structure allows the shoulder a wide range of motion, it also makes it less stable and more vulnerable to damage. There are many injuries that can affect the shoulder, with one of the most common being tearing of the rotator cuff tendons (called “tendinitis” or “tendinopathies”), which often lead to a bursitis, or swelling of the bursa sac, resulting in shoulder impingement (pain raising the arm). In fact, over half of people in their 80s have tearing of the rotator cuff.

There are several activities that aim to recover the function of the shoulder in both non-surgical and post-surgical situations. Exercises are intended to improve balance, reinforce weak muscles and support the shoulder. However, findings suggest that the best outcomes are obtained when stabilising scapula movements are used in the treatment phase.

One GREAT exercise for stabilising the scapulae is called the Push-Up Plus (PUP). This is performed by positioning yourself into a push-up position (either toes or knees—you choose based on strength) with your hands shoulder width apart, elbows locked straight, and the fingers pointed outward (thumbs at 12 o’clock). Instead of dropping the chest to the floor, PUSH the middle of the back upward toward the ceiling. Hold the position for three seconds and SLOWLY return to the start position. Repeat five to ten times and gradually increase reps as you’re able.

There are a range of variants to this. For example, turning the fingers inward increases the operation of the rotator cuff muscles (the most important muscle group for shoulder stabilisation) and decreases the action of the chest muscles (pectoralis major) and scapula elevators (levator scapula). You can also alter this by raising your feet to different heights, as the higher the feet, the greater the serratus anterior muscle activity!

We can inform you on which shoulder stabilisation exercises might be most helpful to your particular situation. If you would like to seek treatment for a range of services, book online here and we look forward to seeing you!


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Neck Pain

Osteopathic Care in Glasgow & Ayrshire of the Elderly with Neck Pain

One in five people over 70 are suffering from neck pain, which can have a drastic impact on their overall quality of life. How effective is Osteopathic neck pain management for a senior?

A 2019 study released in the journal Osteopathic & Manual Therapies surveyed 288 Australian Osteopathic patients and found that people over 65 years of age account for about a third (28.5 percent) of the overall number of patients.

Nearly half (46 per cent) of these elderly patients sought care for neck pain, often with dizziness and headaches that coexisted. Researchers found that this group of elderly patients often had a fear of falling, which impaired their individual capacity to function independently.

Osteopaths in the survey indicated that they often addressed care of seniors with neck pain using a variety of physical therapies (including spinal massage, instrument change, mobilisation and active / passive stretching), modalities (ice / heat, ultrasound, electrical stimulation), effective exercises and self-management guidelines to alleviate discomfort and strengthen neck and upper back function.

Another benefit of a conservative approach to treatment such as Osteopathic care for an older patient is that it does not involve over-the-counter or prescription medicines that may have undesirable side effects or interactions with other medications, that the elderly patient may take.

In fact, a study published in the journal Pain Medicine in March 2020 reported that patients who received Osteopathic treatment for a musculoskeletal condition, such as neck pain, were significantly less likely to take pain medication to manage their pain in the following year, especially if they first consulted with an Osteopath.

Many of the patients in the study (nearly 99 percent) reported an improvement in neck pain and associated symptoms after an average of nine treatments, although patients with both neck pain and migraines required an average of two additional visits.

If you are an older adult suffering from new-onset or chronic neck pain, call 0141 339 0894 or Book Online at

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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Affects Various People in Glasgow & Ayrshire

While carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) affects 4 percent of the population, certain people have a significantly higher risk of the condition, and a variety of causes will need to be treated in order to achieve a successful outcome.

Trauma: An acute trauma, including fracture bones, can lead to CTS. However, it is more common to link chronic stress reactions with the condition.

Anatomy: Not all wrists are equal and some individuals may have a narrower carpal tunnel which increases the chances of inflammation of the tendons passing through the region, and compressing of the median nerve.

Arthritis: Osteoarthritis can cause spur formations that project into the tunnel and increase pressure on the nerve. Rheumatoid arthritis causes irritation of the wrist joints and the lining of the tendons, and may also exert pressure on the median nerve as it travels through the wrist.

Hormones: Hormonal changes caused by breastfeeding, menstruation, menopause, birth control drugs, hormone replacement therapy, diabetes, hypothyroid, kidney disease, lymphedema, etc. can lead to carpal tunnel swelling or inflammation which can put pressure on the median nerve.

Medications: Certain drugs can raise the risk of CTS, such as anastrozole, a medication used in the treatment of breast cancer; diphosphonates, a class of drugs used to treat osteoporosis; oral anticoagulants; and more. (When there are non-musculoskeletal causes, treatment can include co-management with a patient’s doctor.)

Job environment: CTS risk factors in the office include a cold climate, vibrating equipment, uncomfortable neck / arm / hand configurations, no breaks, excessive machine mouse activity and more. Individuals who work occupations that are marked by quick, repeated, and aggressive behaviours related to grip / pinch can develop CTS up to 2.5 times more often.

Other Musculoskeletal Conditions: The median nerve may be squeezed when it travels through the spine, back, elbow, and forearm, which may cause CTS-like symptoms in the hand and wrist, even though the carpal tunnel itself is not distorted.

Your Osteopath will need to study the history of each patient’s wellbeing and analyse the entire length of the median nerve to determine the potential factors for optimum outcome.

If you are suffering from CTS or any conditions you feel a session with Cram Osteopaths would help you – please book online at

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Various Causes of Hip Pain

Various Causes of Hip Pain

Hip pain is a very common issue in older adults which can impair their movement and ultimately their freedom. Although it is normal to think that hip Osteoarthritis (HOA) is responsible for the aged population’s prevalence of hip pain, the Framingham Osteoarthritis Research (FOS) found that is not always the case.

The FOS authors reported the presence or absence of HOA on x-ray, was poorly correlated with hip pain. Only 15.6 per cent of participants with frequent hip pain had x-rays that showed HOA. When only about one in six people with hip pain have HOA, from where does their hip pain originate?

Bursitis is a common cause. The bursae are fluid-filled sacs found between joints and attachments to the muscle tendon, that cushion the tissue and protect it. Bursitis is an inflamed bursa, which is typically the product of trauma — repetitive over time or following a one-time macro-traumatic incident, including a sport accident.

Hip synovitis (HS) is an inflammatory disease of the synovial membrane (SM) of the hip which is within the joint capsule. SM has the purpose of lubricating and nourishing the cartilage and bones within the joint capsule. The SM is what causes a joint to swell easily after an injury (think about knee or ankle fracture with LOTS of swelling).

Hip synovitis may result from damage, such as a labral tear in which the thin cartilage or labrum ring (located on the hip socket rim) breaks. The labrum cushions the hip joint and acts as a seal of rubber which helps to keep the ball in the hip socket. Injuries from athletics and slip-and-fall will cause labral tears.

Certain sources of hip discomfort include inflammation (various types), damage (bursitis, synovitis, dislocation, fracturing, labral tear, inguinal hernia, sprains, tendinitis, or strains), pinched nerves (sciatica, pinch of the femoral nerve), tumours, and more.

What are Osteopaths doing to aid hip pain? The first step is to develop an objective diagnosis by understanding the history of the patient, a detailed analysis and, if necessary, medical testing such as x-rays or even an MRI. When there is a possibility of a medical issue or other forms of inflammation, a patient may be referred to a doctor for blood testing.

If the condition is musculoskeletal in nature, care may include hip and adjacent joints compression, recovery, and soft tissue therapy for pelvic and low back. Patients may also receive recommendations for nutrition and exercise to reduce inflammation and aid the healing process.

If you are suffering from hip pain book into our Glasgow Or Ayrshire clinics at this link

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Forward Head Posture & Neck Pain in Glasgow & Ayr

Forward Head Posture & Neck Pain in Glasgow & Ayr

Neck pain is one of the most common complaints that results in patients seeking Osteopathic care. Cause of injury is often a reported traumatic incident, but in other cases, the neck pain is the product of wear and tear from bad posture — especially head forward posture.

The Head, weighing 10-11 lbs. (4.5-5 kg), usually rests above your shoulders. If the head of an adult bends to glance at a computer screen or gaze down at their smartphone / tablet, the muscles in the back of the neck and upper back / shoulders tend to work harder to hold the head straight.

Experts estimate that the head feels around 10 lbs for every inch (2.54 cm) of forward head posture, however even heavier on the muscles that attach the head and neck to the back. To demonstrate what that feels like, pick up and hold a 10-pound object, tight to your chest, like a bowling ball. Keep it up with your arm extended out from your body to notice how much heavier it feels, and the pressure it places on your body to sustain the position, even for just a brief while.

Forward head posture is something the body can manage in the short term, but over time the muscles can get tired and the strain can injure the soft tissue in the back of the neck, shoulders and upper back. Some muscles may get stronger to adapt (and some may atrophy), the shoulders may roll forward, the cervical curve may straighten etc. Researchers have observed that forward head posture, particularly with rotation and forward flexion movements, can also reduce neck mobility. Although these changes may lead to a number of negative health problems, neck pain is perhaps the most obvious and common.

If a patient arrives for Osteopathic neck pain treatment, it is usually appropriate to correct postural defects in order to produce a successful result. This can be achieved through manual therapies to restore proper movement in the affected joints, and through exercises to retrain the muscles that may have become deconditioned.

A patient may also need to learn improved postural practices, especially when communicating and interacting with their electronic devices. While the process may take time, the good news is that forward-head posture can be reduced, which can also reduce the risk of recurrence of neck pain.

If you are struggling with neck pain or any related issues, please book into one of our locations which can be found here

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